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Minggu, 07 Juli 2013

E-Codes pada produk makanan

saya menemukan artikel yang menarik tentang bahan-bahan kimia makanana yang diperjualbelikan di dunia, mungkin agak sedikit sulit jika dilihat pada produk Indonesia namun ada baiknya kita mengenal untuk produk impor / luar negeri.dimana bahan-bahan kimia makanna tersebut biasa disebu dengan E-Codes yang biasanya terdiri dari pengawet, pewarna, pengemulsi, dll.

E-Codes ini berisikan list mengenai segala macam bahan makanan yang diharamkan dalam Islam.Macam-macam penyebab mengapa bahan-bahan tsb diharamkan.
Bisa saja karena mengandung babi, alcohol, atau bahan tsb diambil dari binatang yang penyembelihannya tidak sesuai dengan syariah Islam.
Jadi meskipun terbuat dari sapi ataupun ayam, tentu saja harus tetap diwaspadai, kecuali di kemasannya jelas-jelas ada sertifikat halal-nya.

E-100 l E-200 l E-300 l E-400 l E-500 l E-900

E-CODE

DESKRIPSI

KETERANGAN

E-120
(Pewarna)

Colourant, made from crushed insects. This popular colorant is used to impart a deep red shade to fruit juices, gelatins, candies (e. g. red smarties), shampoos.
When used as a food additive, the dye must be labelled on packaging labels. Sometimes carmine is labelled as E120. An unknown percentage of people have been found to have allergies to carmine. Natural carmine dye used in food and cosmetics is unacceptable for Muslims because the dye is extracted from insects.

HARAM

E-160a
(Pewarna)

Orange or yellow plant pigments, found mainly in carrots, green leafed vegetables and tomatoes, which the human body converts into ?Vitamin A' in the liver. Can be commercially manufactured in the laboratory but beta-carotene, with some alpha-carotene and gamma-carotene present, is normally extracted from carrots and other yellow or orange fruits and vegetables with hexane.
Used in butter and soft margarines, coffee sponge cakes, milk products and soft drinks. Please be aware that some manufacturers use gelatine as a stabiliser. With the move away from porcine and bovine gelatine this is likely to be fish gelatine.

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E-252
(Pengawet)

May be derived from waste animal or vegetable matter. Only the producer can give details of its origin.
Used in the preservation of meat products, such as, cured meats, bacon, ham, tongue, sausages, smoked frankfurters, pressed and tinned meats such as corned beef and some Dutch cheeses.
Potassium nitrate is probably better known for its use in gun powder and fireworks or as a fertiliser for intensive crops such as tomatoes and potatoes.
As a food preservative it is one of the most effective (and oldest) ways of preserving meat, in particular inhibiting the growth of the bacterium responsible for botulism.

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E-270
(Pengawet, Anti-oxidant)

As a food additive it increases the antioxidant properties of other substances and can be used to add a bitter taste. All fermented foods are very rich in lactic acid.
Commercially produced by bacterial fermentation on starch and molasses. Also produced in large amounts in the large intestine by the resident bacteria. It is the commonest acidic constituent of fermented milk products such as sour milk, cheese, and buttermilk.
Also used in carbonated drinks, jams, jellies, soft margarine, marmalade, infant milks and cereals, pickled red cabbage, salad dressings, sweets, tartare sauce and many tinned products, such as babyfoods, mackerel, pears, sardines, strawberries and tomatoes.
Muslims should be aware that as it is a naturally occurring animal product, it could conceivably be of animal origin.

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E-304
(Anti-oxidant)

E304, ascorbic acid ester comprising ascorbic acid and palmitic acid, is prepared synthetically and, like E300, it is used as an antioxidant, a colour preservative and as a vitamin supplement but with the added advantage of being fat-soluble at high temperatures.
It can be found in baby formula, chicken stock cubes, pork pies, sausages, scotch eggs and tinned baby food. There is the possibility that the palmitic acid used is obtained from animal fat, although the main source is vegetable fat.
Use of animal (incl. pork) fat cannot be ruled out completely. Only the producer can provide with details of its origin.

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E-312
(Anti-oxidant)

Synthesised from lauryl alcohol and gallic acid, which is produced from plant tannins. Anti-oxidant in fatty products, especially added to prevent rancidity.
Typical products include oils and fats, cereals, snack foods, dairy produce. There is the possibility that the lauric acid used for lauryl alcohol is obtained from animal fat, although the main source is vegetable fat.
Use of animal (incl. pork) fat cannot be ruled out completely. It does not contain alcohol (ethanol).

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E-322
(Emulsifier)

halal if it is from soy fat or egg yolk; haram if it is from animal fat. Commercial lecithin, most of which comes from soya bean oil, which may be Genetically Modified, contains a mixture of phosphoglycerides containing principally lecithin, cephalin and phosphatidyl inositol.
Other sources are egg yolk, from where it was originally obtained, and leguminous seeds, including peanuts and maize, which also may be Genetically Modified. As an emulsifier it lowers the surface tension of water allowing the better combining of oils, fats and water in such foods as chocolate, ice cream, margarine and mayonnaise.
In bread and bakery products it increases volume and also acts as an anti-staling agent thereby extending shelf life. Lecithin is also a good synergist to antioxidants in fats and oils so is often used in combination with them

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E-325
(Anti-oxidant)

The sodium salt of Lactic acid (E270). It is hygroscopic and used in such products as sponge cakes and Swiss rolls where its ability to absorb moisture helps to retain the moisture content and thereby extend shelf-life. It is also used for its synergistic effect on other substances antioxidant effect and sometimes as a substitute for glycerol (E422).
Found in cheese, sponge cakes and Swiss rolls, ice cream, jams, jellies, margarine, marmalades and sweets.
Muslims should be aware that as the source, (E270), Lactic acid, is a naturally occurring animal product it could conceivably be of animal origin.

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E-326
(Anti-oxidant)

The potassium salt of lactic acid (E270). It is hygroscopic and used in such products as sponge cakes and Swiss rolls where its ability to absorb moisture helps to retain the moisture content and thereby extend shelf-life.
It is also used for its synergistic effect on other substances antioxidant effect. Found in sponge cakes and Swiss rolls, ice cream, jams, jellies, marmalades and sweets.
Muslims should be aware that as the source, E270, Lactic acid, is a naturally occurring animal product it could conceivably be of animal origin.

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E-327
(Anti-oxidant)

The calcium salt of lactic acid (E270). Particularly used in tinned fruits and vegetables where it inhibits discolouration and, because of its reaction with the naturally present pectin, forming the less water soluble calcium pectate, helps prevent the structural collapse of the food. Improves properties of milk powders and condensed milk.
Also used for its synergistic effect on other substances antioxidant effect. As well as the aforementioned can be found in jams, jellies, and marmalades.
Muslims should be aware that as the source, E270, Lactic acid, is a naturally occurring animal product it could conceivably be of animal origin.

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E-329
(Anti-oxidant)

Magnesium lactate is the magnesium salt of lactic acid, E270, and is used as a humectant and antioxidant in food. It is capable of increasing the antioxidant effects of other substances.
It is hygroscopic hence is used in such products where its ability to absorb moisture helps to extend shelf life. Sometimes used as a substitute for glycerol. Typical products include jams, margarines, cheese, sweets, ice cream, cakes. Lactic acid, is a naturally occurring animal product it could conceivably be of animal origin.

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E-430
(Emulsifier)

Synthetic compound, produced from ethylene oxide (a synthetic compound) and stearic acid (a natural fatty acid). Emulsifier found in Products like Sauces and (mainly) cosmetics. Acceptable Daily Intake is upto 25 mg/kg body weight for the entire group of compounds in the E430-E436 range; on the other hand, it has not been specified for the individual compounds. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436.
These compounds (430-E436) contain fatty acids, which are nearly always from vegetable oils; however, use of animal fat (including pork) cannot be fully ruled out.
Chemically, the origin of these compounds cannot be determined; only the producer may provide information on the origin.

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E-431
(Emulsifier)

E431 is a synthetic compound, produced from ethylene oxide (a synthetic compound) and stearic acid (a natural fatty acid). Used in bakery products, puddings, etc. Acceptable Daily Intake is upto 25 mg/kg body weight for the entire group of compounds in the 430-E436 range; on the other hand, it has not been specified for the individual compounds.
These compounds (430-E436) contain fatty acids, which are nearly always from vegetable oils; however, use of animal fat (including pork) cannot be fully ruled out.
Chemically, the origin of these compounds cannot be determined; only the producer may provide information on the origin.

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E-432
(Emulsifier)

Polysorbates are made by reacting ethylene oxide (a gas) with sorbitan esters. Polysorbates are generally used in combination other emulsifiers such as mono-and diglycerides or sorbitan monostearates for various purposes such as to disperse flavours and colours, to make essential oils and vitamins soluble and to improve volume and texture in baked goods.
Widely used as an emulsifier or solubiliser in a variety of foods including bakery products and in cosmetics and other industrial products.

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E-433
(Emulsifier)

Functions as an emulsifier (holding water and oils in suspension), in various foods and supplements.
Polysorbates are generally used in combination other emulsifiers such as mono-and diglycerides or sorbitan monostearates for various purposes such as to disperse flavours and colours, to make essential oils and vitamins soluble and to improve volume and texture in bakery products.

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E-434
(Emulsifier)

Used as an antifoaming agent, colourant and fat-soluble antioxidants.
Found in Desserts and Sugar confectionery . Also found in Firm Hold Hair Gels.

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E-435
(Emulsifier)

Polyoxyethylene- (20) -sorbitan monostearate and its close relatives, POLYSORBATE 65 and 80, work the same way as mono-and diglycerides, but smaller amounts are required to achieve the same result.
They help prevent baked goods from going stale, keep dill oil dissolved in bottled dill pickles, help coffee whiteners dissolve in coffee, and prevent oil from separating out of artificial whipped cream.
An emulsifier and thickener found in bakery products, frozen desserts, imitation dairy products, emulsified sauces and soups.
Other uses include products such as creams, lotions, pomades, sunscreens, shampoos, conditioners, skin protection creams, salves, pharmaceutical ointments, and other emulsions.

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E-436
(Emulsifier)

Emulsifier, stabiliser in a large range of foods including chewing gum. Causes fat absorption. Potentially cancer-inciting . Banned in Australia

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E-441
(Emulsifier, gelling agent)

Produced from all species of animals. Unfortunately information on origin can only be obtained from the producer. Specific halal gelatin is made from cattle.

HARAM

E-442
(Emulsifier)

Manufactured either synthetically or from a mixture of Glycerol (E422) and partially hardened rape seed oil.
Used mainly as an emulsifier, to lower the surface tension of water so allowing the better combining of oils, fats and water, and as a stabiliser, to prevent separation. Similar in use to Lecithin (E322). Limited use as an antioxidant.
Muslims should note that although industrial manufacturing based on propylene or sugar accounts for a large percentage of glycerol production, it can be obtained as a by-product in making soap from animal and vegetable fats and oils. Found in cocoa and chocolate products. It is the emulsifier found in Cadbury's Dairy Milk chocolate.

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E-470a
(Emulsifier)

Fatty acids are natural elements of fats and oils. Their salts are obtained by treating them with alkaline substances in order to make such things as soaps. Used in cake mixes and oven ready chips.

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E-470b
(Emulsifier)

Used as an anti-caking agent in certain food supplement tablets and capsules. Not permitted in Australia.

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E-471
(Emulsifier)

Manufactured from glycerin (see E422) and fatty acids, these are normally obtained from hydrogenated soya bean oil and as such may be genetically modified but the source maybe of animal origin aswell hence one must read the packaging to confirm suitable for vegetarians.
Used where the foaming power of egg protein needs to be retained in the presence of fat and in baked goods as an 'anti-staling' agent where it prevents the loss of water from starches.
Allegedly the most commonly used emulsifier in the food processing industry, it can be found in, amongst other foods, Black Forest gateau mix, cakes, hot-chocolate mix, aerosol creams, shaped crisps, quick custard mix, packet dessert topping, dehydrated potato, sponge puddings, sterilised, pasteurised and UHT cream, low-calorie cream and pasteurised low-fat cream, margarine and low fat spreads, and ice cream.

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E-472a
(Emulsifier)

Prepared from mixing esters of glycerol (see E422) with edible fats and acetic acid (see E260). Improves aeration properties of high fat recipes and produces a stable foam in whipped products by collecting together the fat globules.
Because it is capable of forming a very thin, flexible and stretchable film it is also used as coating for meat products, nuts and fruits where it improves appearance and extends shelf life. Can also be found in bread, dessert toppings and cheesecake and mousse mixes

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E-472b
(Emulsifier)

Esters of mono and diglycerides (also see E472a, E472c and E472e) are widely used especially in fats, bakery products & whipped toppings Used to give emulsions their stability and the required viscosity. The first use of monoacylglycerols on an industrial scale was, more than 50 years ago, for making margarine where they emulsify the water phase in oil and fat phase.
They are now currently included in low calorie spreads, peanut butter and ice cream to control their texture, starch based foods such as macaroni, noodles, potato products and in the bakery industry.
Found in Cadburys mousse deserts, Marks & Spencer Strawberry Trifle and Mullerlight mousse.

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E-472c
(Emulsifier)

Citrated mono and diglycerides are formed by esterifying the hydroxyl groups of mono and diglycerides. Used as an emulsifier.
A substitute for lecithin (E322) in various applications. Permitted for use in infant formula and follow-on milk and other foods for infants and young children

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E-472d
(Emulsifier)

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E-472e
(Emulsifier)

Consists of mixed glycerol esters of mono and diacetyltartaric acid and fatty acids of food fats prepared from esters of glycerol (see E422) with tartaric acid (see E334).
It is made by the interaction of diacetyltartaric anhydride and mono and diglycerides.
Its main use is as a dough conditioner in yeast raised bakery products such as bread although it also finds use in hot chocolate mix, gravy granules and frozen pizza.

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E-472f
(Emulsifier)

Consists of esters of glycerol with fatty acids of food fats, acetic acid and tartaric acid.
It may contain small amounts of free glycerol, free fatty acids, free acetic acid, free tartaric acid and free glycerides. Found in processed bread and some other products.

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E-473
(Emulsifier)

Used stabilise margarine, mayonnaise, soups and dairy desserts. Modify swelled starch in noodles and baked goods.
Also may be found in the following: baking mixes, chewing gum, coffee and tea beverages with added dairy ingredients, frozen dairy desserts and mixes, as a component of protective coatings applied to fresh apples, avocados, bananas, banana plantains, limes, melons (honeydew and cantaloupe), papaya, peaches, pears, pineapples, and plums to retard ripening and spoiling. Also involved in the production of olestra.

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E-474
(Emulsifier)

An emulsifier, stabiliser and thickener which may be found in dairy based drinks, flavoured and/or fermented (e. g. , chocolate milk, cocoa, eggnog, drinking yoghurt, whey based drinks), beverage whiteners, dairy based desserts (e. g. , ice cream, fruit or flavoured yoghurt).
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet, surface treated fresh fruit, fruit based desserts, including fruit flavoured water based desserts, cocoa mixes (powders and syrups), chewing gum, cereal and starch based desserts (e. g. , rice pudding, tapioca pudding).
Also, heat treated processed meat, poultry, and game products in whole pieces or cuts, heat treated processed comminuted meat, poultry, and game products, egg based desserts (e. g. , custard), soups and broths, sauces, dietetic foods intended for special medical purposes, including those for infants and young children, dietetic formulae for slimming purposes and weight reduction, food supplements, water based flavoured drinks, including "sport" or "electrolyte" drinks and particulated drinks, cider and perry, fruit wine, Mead and Spirituous beverages.

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E-475
(Emulsifier)

Extensively used in icings, toppings and cake mixes, ice cream, other desserts, bakery and pastry products, chewing gum, coffee whitener, butter and other spreads, milk powder for baby food, and imitation milk powders.
It can also be used as a vehicle for a drug (dissolved or suspended), as a wetting agent, to help the wetting of a suspended powder , as a thickener. Owing to its high viscosity, it can be mixed with vegetable oils, to increase viscosity thus preventing separation.

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E-477
(Emulsifier)

Mainly used in cakes & whipped toppings as emulsifiers and aerating agents.

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E-478
(Emulsifier)

Combination of lactic acid, glycerol, propanediol and natural fats. Normal fat consists of glycerol and fatty acids, for these products glycerol is replaced by propanediol.
The fats are mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. The product generally is a mixture of different components.
As an Emulsifiers and stabilizer it is found in bakery products. Acceptable Daily Intake is upto 25 mg/kg bodyweight for propyleneglycol.
Although mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Only the producer can give detailed information on the origin of the fatty acids. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.

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E-479b
(Emulsifier)

Found in magarine and similar fat emulsions for frying purposes. May be of Genetically modified origin as manufactured from soya.

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E-481
(Emulsifier)

Emulsifier used to improve the texture of baked goods, dough conditioner; stabiliser and whipping agent, emulsifying agent in salad dressings (including French dressing), soups, non dairy creamers, cream liqueur drinks and beauty preparations.

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E-482
(Emulsifier)

Similar to E481 but with calcium as the added mineral instead of sodium. Lactic acid in commercial food is produced either by chemical synthesis or from bacterial fermentation of a carbohydrate such as corn sugar.
It is considered safe for a milk allergic individual. Used as a conditioner in dehydrated potatoes (instant mashed potatoes) and helps to prevent staleing in bread.

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E-483
(Emulsifier)

Used as a dough strengthening agent. Stearyl tartrate has been extensively studied in animals. There are fears in some quarters that it may be a carcinogen, and it is prohibited in Australia.

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E-491
(Emulsifier)

Sorbitan fatty acid esters are lipophilic (fat loving) generally soluble or dispersible in oil and tend to form water in oil emulsions. They are also soluble in most organic solvents.
Used in fine bakery wares, anusol pile cream!!! and cream for dry and sensitive skin.

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E-492
(Emulsifier)

A semisynthetic compound derived from simple sugars and fatty acids. Produced by the reaction of sorbitol and stearic acid, sorbitan monostearate is the only sorbitan ester approved for food use.
Applications include emulsifier for the preparation of water /oil emulsions, emulsifier for insecticides, anti-foaming agent, used in conjunction with polysorbates in oil toppings, cake mixes, etc. Found in Lancome nail strengthening cream, McDonalds (magarine applied to buns),

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E-493
(Emulsifier)

Produced from sorbitol and lauric acid, a normal fatty acid from vegetable or animal origin. Emulsifier and stabiliser found in different products. Although mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded.
Several groups, such as vegans, Muslims and Jews thus avoid these products. Only the producer can give detailed information on the origin of the fatty acids. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.

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E-494
(Emulsifier)

Used as an emulsifier, thickener and stabiliser in foods. It stops yeast products foaming. Also used in pharmaceuticals. Banned in Australia.

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E-495
(Emulsifier)

Emulsifier and stabiliser as alternative for 491. It is Banned in Australia. Due to its adverse health effects it is advisable to avoid it.

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E-542
(Anticaking agent)

Produced from animal bones. Used as an anti-caking agent, emulsifier and source of phosphorous in food supplements. Main use, however, is in cosmetics (such as tooth paste).
Found in dry products and cane sugar. Acceptable daily intake suggested by health authorities is upto 70 mg/kg bodyweight. Phosphates are normal essential salts for the body. In view of the need to avoid calcium deficiency, their use is limited, as they bind to calcium readily.

HARAM

E-570
(Anticaking agent)

A normal part of any fat. Commercially prepared from cottonseed oil, but animal origin can not be excluded. Used as anti-caking agent and plasticizer in chewing gum. Also used in flavours.
Found in Chewing gum, butter aroma/flavour, bakery products. Also used in cosmetics and pharmaceutical preparations. Acceptable daily intake is not determined.
Although stearic acid and stearates are commercially obtained from plant sources, the use of animal fat (including pork and beef) can not be excluded. Only the producer can provide information on the origin.

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E-571
(Anticaking agent)

Ammonium salt of stearic acid. Used as anti-caking and anti-foaming agent in sugar production. Found in Sugar, but mainly used in cosmetics. Acceptable daily intake is not determined.
Although stearic acid and stearates are commercially obtained from plant sources, the use of animal fat (including pork and beef) can not be excluded. Only the producer can provide information on the origin.

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E-572
(Emulsifier, Anticaking agent)

Magnesium salt of stearic acid . Used as anti-caking agent and emulsifier. Used in Confectionary. Main use is in cosmetics (baby powder) Acceptable daily intake is not determined.
Although stearic acid and stearates are commercially obtained from plant sources, the use of animal fat (including pork and beef) can not be excluded. Only the producer can provide information on the origin.

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E-910

A naturally occuring sulphur containing amino acid, derived from cystine, that the body needs to produce Glutathione, one of the body's major antioxidants.
Natural sources of cysteine include eggs, meat, dairy products and some cereals although it is commercially produced from hair, both animal and human, (which is around 12% cysteine) and feathers.
In compound form (E920 and E921) it is used in flour and bakery products (except wholemeal) where it is used as an improving agent and in chicken stock cubes where it is used as a flavour.

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E-920
(Improving agent)

An essential amino acid, present in all protein (essential indicates that it is needed by the human body). Derived from proteins, including animal protein and hair.
It is a bread enhancer and stabilises the structure of leavened bread. Acceptable daily intake is not determined.

HARAM

E-921
(Improving agent)

An essential amino acid, present in all protein (essential indicates that it is needed by the human body). Derived from proteins, including animal protein and hair.
It is a bread enhancer and stabilises the structure of leavened bread. Acceptable daily intake is not determined. E921 can be obtained from animal sources, including pork making it haram for muslims.

HARAM

 

Sumber: http://www.searchtruth.com

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